Conclusion and Evaluation

The research does not proof the assumption of space size - amount of users to be correct.

There were only 2 examples where the tendency was going in one direction more than in the other. Those were location1 during the day and location3 during the night.

However, they are many ways in which the research could have been improved, so that the results would show more polar tendencies, which would be easier to evaluate.

The problems of the research were:

  1. The method of 3D photography does not reflect the real feeling of the space and makes it hard to capture the movement of the people.
  2. Because the panoramas were sometimes blury due to technology limitation, people filling the survey (70% from Warsaw) were judging the space basing on the personal assocciations of the space rather than material provided. That could have been observed in the location1 - Rondo Dmowskiego.
  3. Although there were some directions how to judge the space (basing on the amount of users), people questioned mostly judged it on the condition of the space or amount of light on the picture. For example unsued space of Pasaz Wiecha was said to be safe, probably basing on the good condition of the newly renowated site and the big amount of light during the night.
What is more, the second part of the research is more interesting. It might be concluded that:

  1. People examined were identifing a lot going on around Rondo Dmowskiego. They think it is safe, although overcrowded.
  2. The survey showed that people feel safe in the housing areas on the left bank of the river in the north and south (for example Goclaw).
  3. The Safe housing ares are surrounding the place which is identified as the most unsafe space - Praga. Polar tendencies typical for the big city. Safe districts surrendered by unsafe ones.
  4. Asforementioned, the not used enough spaces are liniear: Vistula River or Aleje Jerozolimskie and overused spaces are centric: Rondo Dmowskiego or Dworzec Centralny - Zlote tarasy.
  5. Many places unused or overused are both safe; for example underused Old Town and overused Rondo Dmowskiego are both safe in the opinion of questioned people.


  1. People judge space basing mostly on the condition of the space, amount of light and personal assocciations.
  2. No general relation between amount of users and space can be identified with 3D photography technology.
  3. Warsaw has no liniar continiuity, it is based on points were people gather.



Unsafed places were identified with Praga and Wola.

Safe places were identified with busy center and housing districts.

Overcrowded places were located in the direct city centre surrounding communication spots.

What is interesting, not used enought spaces are mostly located around overused place, but they are more liniar and continious. The location of Old Town as unused spaces identifies the problem of spread and partied Centre of Warsaw.



Similarly as in location 2, people thought the space was not used enough, however it had no major impact on the perception of the space. The space is the biggest of all tested. The feeling of lack of peope was probably magnified by that fact.



Although the general tendency shows that TOO FEW people are using the space, it had no impact on the safety perception. The location of Pasaz Wiecha is recently renovated and is very large rectangular shape of a lenght 200m and 50 m wide.



It is hard to interprete the results. Most of the people whought the space was rather safe, although few people are using it during the night and quite many during the day. The space is also very narrow (20m) which had no impact on the perception of the space.


The Survey

We wanted to examine the data collected.
We are currently questioning people how do they perceive space registered by 3D photography.

Here is the link to the survey:


The 3D Panoramas


Research Topic

We are a pair of students from ASK trying to investigate how the public space is perceived in Warsaw.

We have few assumptions and objectives. Since perception of the space is a complex phenomena, we would like to focus on only few aspects, which we find particularly interesting and important in Warsaw.

Warsaw is a city which was 90% damaged during the WW2 and some spaces, formed after 1946 might leave users with some kind of discontent.

First thing a person notices when in Warsaw are endless streets dedicated to vehicles. Pedestrian tracks are mostly empty. Therefore we decided to investigate on the pedestrian walkways. We choose 3 locations of a different character:

1) Underground passage: RONDO DMOWSKIEGO

2) Commercial area coming back to life: PASAŻ WIECHA

3) Newly built office area: MOKOTÓW

Our assumption was that the perception of the space is strongly connected with the proportion between dimension of the space and number of users. They can not be too may or too few.
Our research also investigates how people perceive space recorded by 3D photography.
And what places people find safe / not safe in Warsaw.