Social Participation as bottom-up process


A bottom-up approach is the piecing together of systems to give rise to grander systems, thus making the original systems sub-systems of the emergent system. In a bottom-up approach the individual base elements of the system are first specified in great detail. These elements are then linked together to form larger subsystems, which then in turn are linked, sometimes in many levels, until a complete top-level system is formed. This strategy often resembles a "seed" model, whereby the beginnings are small but eventually grow in complexity and completeness.


The same manners are characteristic for groups which pointing out social factors not visible for people who get used to it. One of such a process I would like to describe as a part of social Participation in NYC which has it`s beginning in Street Art (probably Banksy). One of the main problems in a huge cities are turists. As we all know they have their own regulations of behave, speed of traveling and time zones during the day. Depend on the city zones that might be really problematic in such a place like manhattan where rush life of business center does not correspond with one of the most famous tourist attraction in US.


Even if it`s a problem, people from NYC get their own rules how to avoid it (described by city citizen):
1. If possible, avoid midtown and downtown during rush hours and the lunch hour. Otherwise be prepared for a lot of people moving a lot of different directions fast.
2. Move quickly (and if you can’t move quickly, stay to the side).
3. If you get confused, pull over. This is a good default. Whatever happens, avoid standing with a large group in the middle of a narrow sidewalk or primary thoroughfare of a subway station. Also, move all the way into the subway car–don’t just stop in the doorway.
4. Don’t cut people off. If you are headed for one turnstile with a line that seems to be moving too slow, don’t think you can just move over to the next one (change lanes) without checking to make sure there isn’t anyone else coming through. It’s called merging!
5. If you are in a group, try to limit walking more than two across or you will effectively block all the people behind you from passing you (which will not make them very happy).
I also have a few more practical tips about the NYC subway system. As I approach my one year anniversary in the city next week, I think I am finally qualified to offer them. Please feel free to add to this list in the comments.
1. People are more than happy to help you figure out which train to take–just ask.
2. While New Yorkers are more than happy to help, you might catch them travelling on a train they don’t use very often, so don’t be surprised if they don’t know the answer to your question.
3. Construction is constant. If you can find out what lines you’ll be using the most, then you can go to and look up any irregularities about the trains’ schedules.
4. On many subway train lines there is an express and a local train. It’s pretty easy to see which stops the trains make on the subway map. However, on many lines the local train stops running at night and the express train may or may not run local. An example are the blue line trains (A express/C local) and two of the orange line trains (B local/D express). These four trains meet at 59th street (Columbus circle) and run along the same path for several blocks to the north. If you want to get off at a local stop like 72nd or 86th street, you have to take a C or B train. But, the B doesn’t run at night, and the D doesn’t run local. So you have to take a C train. However, the C is under construction right now, so the A is actually running local at night these days.

That is why community of NYC can afford some relly attractive/untypical intervention which will create a public discussion how to upgrade… transit, by creating lines for tourists and NYC residents

Obviously, the lanes wouldn't be designated for "tourists and "New Yorkers." Some tourists walk briskly and some New Yorkers walk slowly, and it makes no sense for them to be relegated to a lane that doesn't match their speed preference. Sometimes, even regularly fast-paced New Yorkers will decide to walk slowly, like when they have a lot of time to kill, when they're trying not to sweat before a date or interview, when they're high, or when they're stunned after seeing The Sixth Sense for the first time. Plus, the only way to enforce the separation of tourists and New Yorkers would be to inspect I.D.'s, and then we're basically Arizona at that point.
So the lanes would simply be "fast" and "slow." As on the highway, you could move in and out of lanes to get around someone else, but if you're walking straight ahead, you would do so in the lane that matched your speed. Of course, people could just easily ignore the lanes entirely. But if even some people adhered to them, it would make foot travel a little more efficient, more enjoyable, and you wouldn't feel the urge to punch a slow walker in the back of the head as often.

Who are the main Stakeholders of this public participation plan for creating a lines for trourists.

First – are a Tourists. Tourism in New York City includes nearly 47 million foreign and American tourists each year. In 2010, New York City had a record number of tourists with 48.7 million.Since the United States economy is still recovering, Mayor Michael Bloomberg's goal is to break the record again in 2012 by drawing more than 50 million tourists.

Second – NYC Residents. New York is the most populous city in the United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the city's population stood at a record high of 8,175,133, a 2.1% increase from the 8 million counted in 2000. Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg immediately challenged the Census Bureau’s 2010 data as representing an undercount upon release. This amounts to about 40% of the state of New York's population and a similar percentage of the metropolitan regional population. In 2006, demographers estimated that New York's population will reach between 9.2 and 9.5 million by 2030.




My idea of future of GIS is a smooth direction to neogeography.
Hard data can be a key for our everyday habits, but there have to be found some new sort of representations, in interesting graphical aspects which might be easly understandable for a new generation of users.

For every interested in aspects of new way of data representation I recommend .Hans Rosling lectures on

Hans Rosling: The good news of the decade?

Hans Rosling on HIV: New facts and stunning data visuals.

Other kind of data representation you can find on website.

As an example I choosed a project of Tom Gonzales which he describe with data from, interactive visualization depicts US Trade Surplus and Deficit, with 20 different countries, for each month over the past 10 years. The countries in the blue-green along the top represent surplus cash flows to the United States, while the countries in the purple-red along the bottom represent deficit cash flows from the United States. Users can analyze each year individually or animate the graph over the 10-year timeline.


2nd attempt

2nd map (movie) is showing a dynamic change of mental thoughts.
When we think about other city as different life looking at the cartograms we can findout that -forget about "learned" ideas of the distances and reinterpreted hard data- in Warsaw almoust every district have different agenda of connection with center.
Especially places where metro stations doesn`t exist.


So the questions is about future ideas of the cities when even now we can see huge plans of China goverments to connect few city to one conurbation with more than 40 mln. people population.

It can give us an idea of future conurbation between Warsaw and Lodz or even Warsaw and Radom where the time will be related to Raiilway or Metro Station access


1st attempt

For checking my idea I decided to work only with public transport.

The aim was to show relations between points not as a physical distances but just according to time between them and a target point.

As a target point I choosed center of Warsaw, Palace of Culture and SIence - probably the future bussiness "city" of highrise buildings and skyscapers:O)
From Lodz as a starting point I choosed Lodz Fabryczna Railway Station and from Warsaw an adresses of districts head offices.

1st map -below- is showing a static relation between distances (gray color) and time (blue color) needed to reach the target point - Warsaw Center Metro Station.

static diagramAll diagrams were done by using Grasshopper software for parametric relations.



In my personal research I tried to find a relation between a time and distance by example of Lodz and Warszawa.
Today we need 1h 26min by the common train connection between Lodz ( Lodz Fabryczna Railway Station ) and Warsaw ( Warszawa Centralna Railway Station ).
In next 10 years Lodz townhall in cooperation with Polish Railways want to modernize this connection, and allows train to minimize time between Warszawa and Lodz to 42min.

connection This will create a new field for discussion if its necessery/efficient to live and work in Warsaw or it might be better to live in Lodz and comming to Warsaw just to work, especially that this situation is visible even now.

It`s a wide subject of transportation system and social aspects of it,

As David Sedoon wrote in one of his publications about hidden aspects of transportation "It must be recognised from the outset that transport development, of whatever kind, will have different significance for and different effects on the lives and livelihoods of different social groups and categories. This must be borne in mind when discussing transport development alternatives – for transport development is ultimately a social issue – the technology involved is a means to an end –
improving access and accessibility to valued goods and services. But for whom? To whose benefit and to whose cost?

The differential distribution of costs and benefits needs to be considered to a far greater extent than is currently the case. The overall benefits may be outweighed by the overall costs; but it is also possible that the overall benefits could be outweighed by the costs to one section of the population – and vice versa.
The overall benefit of a third London airport may be at the cost to the local population directly affected by the noise and other ‘pollution’ (and negative effects). The benefits of a rural road may be outweighed for those involved in portering by the reduction in employment opportunities. The cost to a local community of building a suspended bridge may be outweighed by the increased access afforded to a school (for children) or to a health post (for sick and disabled people).
But in case of this research I will focuse only on time.

question markdiagram_01

The base of this task was to find out if the time which we need to get to Warsaw from Lodz might be even smaller that comming to the Warsaw center from other district of this city.



GIS as Geographic Informaton System in ordinary way of meaning is gathering a lot of data related to urban studies, buildings terrain shape ect.
This kind of data can be represent in a way of typical plan related to scale and standards of map systems.
But there is also an ability to show other kind of information related to geographical manners and custom legend, graphic or layout depend of information - its called neographic.

One of the possible way of showing an information -and in my opinion the best from graphical point of view -is cartogram.



According to Tobler and his work “Thirty five Years of Computer Cartograms” in 2004 ‘‘In 1851 Minard published a series of maps called ‘cartogrammes a foyer diagraphiques’ or maps with diagrams’’ (Friis 1974, Tobler 2004). It is the first time that the term “cartogram” is used..

Since then, cartograms constitute a particular form of representation of the various geogrpahic phenomena. The main idea of cartograms remains the same: the measurement of the geometric map distortion. The area of each geographic unit represents a statistic parameter, demographic, economic, or social, etc. The necessary- for the creation of a cartogram- cartographic generalization implies the use of digital cartography and special algorithms that create such cartograms. These algorithms often use a different type of logic when it comes to creating the cartograms geometry or when planning the way that the various geographic units are related and connected to each other. Also, the maintenance of the geometric shapes of the cartograms, in order to be more recognizable areas in the map, is also one important parameter in the process of map making.

Specifically, we could end up in a group of various techniques of cartogram making such as:





Rubber map method




DEMP (Radial Expansion) method

Selvin et al.



Rubber Sheet Distortion method

Dougenik et al.



Pseudo-Cartogram method




Interactive polygon zipping method




Cellular Automata Machine method




Line Integral method

Gusein-Zade, Tikunov


According to Tobler, the estimating factors of a cartogram creation algorithm could be the following

The proper representation of the statistic value for each area,
Maintenance of the area geometry,
The algorithm representation following both the previous rules one by one.

Today cartograms are widely used to represent spatial dissemination and the connection between the geographic phenomena. The choice of the method used when representing information is considered to be successful when both the chosen map scale and the descriptive information of each phenomenon allows the creation of world maps that represent the dissemination of world environmental

The variety of cartogram maps is endless, below I showed the most common representing kind of... physical morphmap

* A cartogram depicting popular votes in the 2004 US Presidential election, in which the sizes of counties have been rescaled according to their population. Created by Michael Gastner, Cosma Shalizi, and Mark Newman of the University of Michigan.

cartogram_02* Cartogram depicting Gas Consumption by state.

* Cartogram showing expenses for military by countries.


Nikolaos Karanikolas, Theodoros Papadakis, Michael Skaltsounakis