Otwock is a town with past, disappearing health resort character. Located in outside zone of metropolitan commune, it is one of more important city in Warsaw aglomeration. It fulfils a role of dormitory for a capital city.
Otwock is on the south-east from Warsaw, in distance of 25 km. It is connected with Warsaw thanks to train lubelska line( relation Warsaw- Otwock- Dęblin- Puławy- Lublin- Dorohusk). The natural values constitute a base for keeping a continuity in ecological system in both regional and national sense.
Otwock did not fully develop until the second half of the 19th century, when in 1877 the Vistula River Railroad was opened, which ran from Mława via Warsaw, to Lublin and Chełm. At the turn of XIX and XX century, the town experienced a fast growth and development as a place of a sanatorium treatment. Additionally, a presence of the wonderful Swider river favoured an evolution of rest and recreation functions. Next to the first antibroncholis sanatorium in this part of Poland, new pensions were being created in villas. Furthermore, many of them distinguished themselves by unique architecture style called świdermajer.
Following the Nazi–Soviet Invasion of Poland, a murderous Action T4 euthanasia program was carried out by the Nazi Germans in a local psychiatric hospital. In December 1939, German authorities established a Jewish ghetto in Otwock, in order to confine its Jewish population for the purpose of persecution and exploitation. The Ghetto was liquidated between August and September 19, 1942, when 75% of its Jewish population of 12,000–15,000 numbering at around 8,000 were assembled by the Nazis at a layover yard in Otwock (pictured) and transported in cattle trucks to extermination camps in Treblinka and Auschwitz. Jews who remained were summarily shot at Reymonta Street soon after.
After the war, there was a radical change of character. The influx of pre-war population wave from Warsaw caused a colonization many guesthouses. In the following years, a development of multi-family buildings began. The city received its features as a bedroom and a seat of the country’s authorities. During this period, the function of industrial production was considered as the primary city-making factor, and there were also allowed, in Otwock, the development of handicrafts and small-scale production. Multi functionality made the structure of the functional space of the city begin to blur. Urban structure has been deformed by a faulty real estate and forest areas management as well as inadequate ownership structure.